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Body
Hyper Tension

Blood pressure is the force that a person’s blood exerts against the walls of their blood vessels. This pressure depends on the resistance of the blood vessels and how hard the heart has to work. Almost half of all adults in the United States have high blood pressure, but many are not aware of this fact. Hypertension is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including stroke, heart attack, heart failure, and aneurysm. Keeping blood pressure under control is vital for preserving health and reducing the risk of these dangerous conditions. In this article, we explain why blood pressure can increase, how to monitor it, and ways to keep it within a normal range.   Management and treatment Regular physical exercise Stress reduction Medication Diet: Reducing salt intake Moderating alcohol consumption Eating more fruit and vegetables and less fat Managing body weight The DASH diet Causes: The cause of hypertension is often not known. In many cases, it is the result of an underlying condition. Doctors call high blood pressure that is not due to another condition or disease primary or essential hypertension. If an underlying condition is the cause of increasing blood pressure, doctors call this secondary hypertension. Primary hypertension can result from multiple factors, including: blood plasma volume hormone activity in people who manage blood volume and pressure using medication environmental factors, such as stress and lack of exercise Secondary hypertension has specific causes and is a complication of another health problem. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common cause of high blood pressure, as the kidneys no longer filter out fluid. This excess fluid leads to hypertension. Conditions that can lead to hypertension include: diabetes, due to kidney problems and nerve damage kidney disease pheochromocytoma, a rare cancer of an adrenal gland Cushing syndrome that corticosteroid drugs can cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia, a disorder of the cortisol-secreting adrenal glands hyperthyroidism, or an overactive thyroid gland hyperparathyroidism, which affects calcium and phosphorous levels pregnancy sleep apnea obesity Risk factors A number of factors increase the risk of hypertension. Age: Hypertension is more common in people who are more than 60 years of age. Blood pressure can increase steadily with age as the arteries stiffen and narrow due to plaque buildup. Ethnicity: Some ethnic groups are more prone to hypertension than others. African Americans have a higher risk than other ethnic groups, for example. · Size and weight: Being overweight or obese is a primary risk factor. Alcohol and tobacco use: Regularly consuming large quantities of alcohol or tobacco can increase blood pressure. Sex: According to a 2018 review, males have a higher risk of developing hypertension than females. However, this is only until after women reach menopause. Existing health conditions: Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and high cholesterol levels can lead to hypertension, especially as people age. Other risk factors include: sedentary lifestyle salt rich, high fat diet low potassium intake Poorly managed stress and a family history of high blood pressure can also contribute to the risk of developing hypertension. Below is a 3-D model of hypertension, which is fully interactive. Explore the model using your mouse pad or touchscreen to understand more about hypertension.

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June 03, 2021
Nc Demo Doctor
GP
Body
What you should know about Laser Blended Vision. A personalized treatment for patients with presbyopia

Our eyesight is the most valuable of all our senses. We take in the world around us primarily with our eyes. Seeing provides us with information, puts things into perspective and forms our views. As we grow older, bodily functions like our eyesight start to decline. Presbyopia is a common eye condition that affects many people over the age of 40. Thereby, the eye starts to lose its ability to shift focus, causing difficulty when focusing on close objects and blurriness when reading. However, thanks to pioneering medical and technological research in recent years, correction options are available. One of these options is Laser Blended Vision, an advanced Laser Vision Correction For compensating some of the symptoms of presbyopia. It offers several advantages Over conventional methods, particularly with respect to the customization of treatment, vision in focus at all distances and the immediate impact it provides. Whether Laser Vision Correction is right for you depends on a variety of factors. Your eye doctor will be happy to assist you in finding the best option for your vision needs. Why PRESBYOND? PRESBYOND Laser Blended Vision is an advanced method of treating presbyopia which offers the opportunity to achieve freedom from glasses by combining the simplicity and accuracy of corneal refractive surgery (laser eye surgery) with the benefits of increased depth of field in retaining visual quality. Compared to other conventional monovision treatments, it offers several significant advantages: Customized As a new and natural approach, PRESBYOND offers patients a customized treatment designed to achieve independence from glasses by combining the simplicity and accuracy of conventional LASIK with the benefits of increased depth of focus. All Distances PRESBYOND Laser Blended Vision is the way of treating presbyopic patients that aims to achieve sharply focused vision at all distances: near, intermediate and far – with virtually no compromises. Immediate Most patients will experience immediate results and will be able to read up-close the very same day of the surgery. For these reasons, PRESBYOND Laser Blended Vision represents the next stage in eye care excellence.

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November 08, 2020
Dr. Ahmed El Sawaf
Improve your vision while decreasing the dependency on glasses and contact lenses.
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Body
Worst Drinks for Teeth

Everyone knows that sugar is a challenge for your teeth and your entire intestinal tract, but acidic foods can cause just as many problems. This is because the acid in food and drinks, such as orange juice, temporarily softens the enamel. After you eat, it can take half an hour for the acids in your mouth to neutralize and the enamel to go back to normal. So if you are constantly eating throughout the day, your mouth never has a chance to recover and you will be more susceptible to acid wear and tooth decay. Some foods and drinks are worse for your teeth than others as they have a low pH, meaning that they are very acidic. What Causes Cavities To Form? While knowledge of oral hygiene and proper preventive measures has greatly improved since the 1950s, the prominence and availability of candy, pop, and junk food has skyrocketed since then. More than ever, it’s important to learn about the foods and drinks that can harm our teeth and bodies, and learn to promote better eating and oral hygiene habits. Four ingredients are needed for tooth decay to begin: Destructive Oral bacteria Sugar Acid Time All four of these ingredients need to be present for tooth decay to begin. What happens when all these ingredients combine? These type of oral bacteria consume sugar and expel lactic acid into the oral cavity. This lactic acid leaches calcium phosphate crystals from the teeth, causing soft spots (white spot lesions) in the protective enamel coating of the teeth. Coffee  This dark drink is a staple in many people’s daily diets, but can be a culprit when it comes to yellowing teeth. To decrease these effects, try drinking less or drinking with a straw to avoid direct contact or follow each cup with continuous water consumption. If you feel that your teeth need a whitening boost, consult your dentist to determine if professional services or over the counter products are the right fit for you. Tea Similar to coffee, this beverage group also has potential staining power, especially black and other dark tea blends. Again, drinking through a straw and being mindful of the level of consumption will help keep teeth shiny and white. Energy and Sports Drinks  This category is probably the worst in terms of sugar levels and acidity, all nightmare ingredients for your teeth. These soda-alternatives can be the most damaging because they attack tooth enamel, which cannot be fixed or replaced. When tooth enamel is worn down, the risk of decay becomes much more serious. Sodas Carbonated soft drinks also possess higher levels of sugar and acidity, which hurt tooth enamel and can lead to decay and cavities. Though sugar free options are better, the acidity is still a major player in dental issues.  Natural drinks are the best for our oral and general health as water and juices.  Juices you should drink maximum only all four hours or less. Soft Drinks Going to get a Coke was seen as a special event, and if you’ve ever seen how small those glass bottles were, you’ll know what I’m getting at here. At the beginning of its mainstream popularity, we’d drink a 6.5 ounce soft drink and be thrilled to death with the experience. Now the standard or “average” size soft drink is 24 ounces-over 3 times larger-and we drink them much more often. Yet this is not the upper limit in size. Soft Drinks contain a lot of sugar or artificial sugar, both is harming our teeth and our body.  Because of a high concentration of sugar, our own mouth flora and the flora (bacteria) in our intestine get strongly damaged.  Our entire immune system gets weaker. Decay appears as a result of the decreased function of the immune system and  the damaged mouth flora. In case of artificial sugar, you increase the risk for diabetes, because your pancreas produces insulin because of getting the information for “sweet” but no sugar is coming, only artificial sugar.  The pancreas is lowering the amount of producing insulin, because of adapting to this “fake”.  This is one of the reasons to get diabetes. In general it means that soft drinks can make your life harder.

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November 08, 2020
Dr. Ingrid Susann Kohler
Dental Care For Life
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Mind
6 Common Types of Depression

Depression is not only hard to endure, but it is also a risk factor for heart disease and dementia. Depressive symptoms can occur in adults for many reasons. The four most common types of depression are major depression, persistent depressive disorder (formerly known as dysthymia), bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder. Major Depression: The classic depression type, major depression is a state where a dark mood is all-consuming and one loses interest in activities, even ones that are usually pleasurable. Symptoms of this type of depression include trouble sleeping, changes in appetite or weight, loss of energy, and feeling worthless. Thoughts of death or suicide may occur. It is usually treated with psychotherapy and medication. For some people with severe depression that isn't alleviated with psychotherapy or antidepressant medications, electroconvulsive therapy may be effective.  Persistent Depressive Disorder: Formerly called 'dysthymia', this type of depression refers to low mood that has lasted for at least two years but may not reach the intensity of major depression. Many people with this type of depression type can function day to day, but feel low or joyless much of the time. Other depressive symptoms may include appetite and sleep changes, low energy, low self-esteem, or hopelessness. Bipolar Disorder: People with bipolar disorder; once known as a manic-depressive disease; have episodes of depression. But they also go through periods of unusually high energy or activity. Manic symptoms look like the opposite of depression symptoms: grandiose ideas, unrealistically high self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, thoughts and activity at higher speed, overspending, and risk-taking. Being manic can feel great, but it doesn't last long, can lead to self-destructive behaviour, and is usually followed by a period of depression. Medications for bipolar disorder are different from those given for other depression types but can be very effective at stabilizing a person's mood. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): This type of depression emerges as days get shorter in the fall and winter. The mood change may result from alterations in the body's natural daily rhythms, in the eyes; sensitivity to light, or in how chemical messengers like serotonin and melatonin function. The leading treatment is light therapy, which involves daily sessions sitting close to an especially intense light source. The usual treatments for depression, such as psychotherapy and medication, may also be effective. Depression Types Unique to Women: Although women are at higher risk for general depression, they are also at risk for two different depression types that are influenced by reproductive hormones; perinatal depression and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Perinatal Depression: This type of depression includes major and minor depressive episodes that occur during pregnancy or in the first 12 months after delivery (also known as postpartum depression). Perinatal depression affects up to one in seven women who give birth and can have devastating effects on the women, their infants, and their families. Treatment includes counselling and medication Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): This type of depression is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome or PMS. Symptoms of PMDD usually begin shortly after ovulation and end once menstruation starts. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as fluoxetine (Prozac) and sertraline (Zoloft), may reduce symptoms.

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June 28, 2020
Dr. Khalid Al Shamsi
Neurologist
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Body
What are Thyroid Disorders?

Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck. The thyroid has important roles to regulate numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. Different types of thyroid disorders affect either its structure or function. The thyroid gland is located below the Adam's apple wrapped around the trachea (windpipe). A thin area of tissue in the gland's middle, known as the isthmus, joins the two thyroid lobes on each side. The thyroid uses iodine to produce vital hormones. Thyroxine, also known as T4, is the primary hormone produced by the gland. After delivery via the bloodstream to the body's tissues, a small portion of the T4 released from the gland is converted to triiodothyronine (T3), which is the most active hormone. The function of the thyroid gland is regulated by a feedback mechanism involving the brain. When thyroid hormone levels are low, the hypothalamus in the brain produces a hormone known as thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) that causes the pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) to release thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release more T4. Since the thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, disorders of these tissues can also affect thyroid function and cause thyroid problems. What are the specific kinds of thyroid disorders? Hypothyroidism: Hypothyroidism results from the thyroid gland producing an insufficient amount of thyroid hormone. It can develop from problems within the thyroid gland, pituitary gland, or hypothalamus. Symptoms of hypothyroidism can include: 1. Fatigue  2. Poor concentration or feeling mentally foggy  3. Dry skin  4. Constipation  5. Feeling cold  6. Fluid retention  7. Muscle and joint aches  8. Depression  9. Prolonged or excessive menstrual bleeding in women Some common causes of hypothyroidism include: 1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis (an autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of the thyroid gland)  2. Thyroid hormone resistance  3. Other types of thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid), such as acute thyroiditis and postpartum thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism: Hyperthyroidism describes excessive production of thyroid hormone, a less common condition than hypothyroidism. Symptoms of hypothyroidism usually relate to increased metabolism. In mild cases, there may not be apparent symptoms. Symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism can include:  1. Tremor  2. Nervousness  3. Fast heart rate  4. Fatigue  5. Intolerance for heat  6. Increase in bowel movements  7. Increased sweating  8. Concentration problems  9. Unintentional weight loss Some of the most common causes of hyperthyroidism are: 1. Graves disease  2. Toxic multinodular goitre  3. Thyroid nodules that overexpress thyroid hormone  4. Excessive iodine consumption  Goitre: A goitre simply describes an enlargement of the thyroid gland, regardless of cause. A goitre is not a specific disease per se. A goitre may be associated with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or normal thyroid function. Thyroid Nodules: Nodules are lumps or abnormal masses within the thyroid. Nodules can be caused by benign cysts, benign tumours, or, less commonly, by cancers of the thyroid. Nodules may be single or multiple and can vary in size. If nodules are excessively large, they may cause symptoms related to compression of nearby structures. Thyroid cancer: Thyroid cancer is far more common among adult women than men or youth. About 2/3 of cases occur in people under age 55. There are different kinds of thyroid cancer, depending upon the specific cell type within the thyroid that has become cancerous. Most cases of thyroid cancer have a good prognosis and high survival rates, especially when diagnosed in its early stages. What is the outlook for thyroid disorders? In most cases, thyroid disorders can be well managed with medical treatment and are not life-threatening. Some conditions may require surgery. The outlook for most people with thyroid cancer is also good, although patients with thyroid cancer that has spread throughout the body have a poorer prognosis. Therefore, as always, regular checkups are a lifesaver.

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June 28, 2020
Dr. Hams Ali
Clinical Pathologist
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