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How to Build Bone Strength?

Strong, healthy bones are vital to our well-being and something everyone should pay attention to, not just older people. Healthy, good bones keep us standing tall. They protect our organs and hold our muscles in place. Bones store calcium and send it to other parts of the body when needed. Genetics play a large role in bone health. But you can't blame your genes for it all! Your diet, exercise and other lifestyle choices affect the strength of your bones, too. If you want to stay healthy, mobile and fracture-free, you need to start taking care of your bones now, whatever your age. Aren't older people the only ones who need to worry about bone health?  It's true that the older you are, the more vulnerable you are to bone problems. When we're young, we build new bone faster than we break it down. Most of us reach our peak bone mass by about age 30, according to the National Institutes of Health. After that, we begin losing bone mass faster than we rebuild it. It is important to develop as much bone mass as you can before age 30. The more you have, the slower you are to likely lose bone mass and therefore bone strength. Puberty is a crucial time for developing bone mass. It's the stage when women create half of their calcium stores and men make up to two-thirds of theirs, according to the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons. Men have about 50 per cent more body calcium than women when puberty is over and continue to have stronger bones throughout their lives. Menopause is particularly hard on women. Estrogen protects bones by helping the body absorb calcium. When estrogen levels drop during menopause, bone loss occurs more quickly. Weaker bones lead to more fractures and an increased risk for osteoporosis, which is much more common in women than men. About 1 in 4 women aged 65 and over will be diagnosed with osteoporosis, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Just 1 in 17 men aged 65 and over will develop the disease. Top ways to build good bones and slow bone loss: Bad health habits and a couch potato lifestyle don't do your bones any favours. Develop healthy habits now. It's never too late. Eat a healthy diet, rich in calcium and vitamin D: Think of your bones as the United States Mint of the body. Instead of money, they store calcium. And when the body needs more calcium, it makes a withdrawal from the bones. As we age and our bones don't restore as quickly, that can be a problem. To build those calcium stores, add calcium-rich foods to your diet: dairy products, almonds, green, leafy vegetables like broccoli and kale, salmon, sardines and soy products. At the same time, make sure you're getting enough vitamin D, which helps the body absorb calcium. Good sources of vitamin D include egg yolks, fortified milk, and oily fish such as tuna and sardines. Don't forget to get out in the sunshine for a healthy dose of vitamin D. How much calcium and vitamin D you need depends on your age. The older you are, the more you need. Sometimes it's hard to get a sufficient amount of either in our diet. Adolescents, postmenopausal women, men over age 70 and others may require a calcium supplement. Most of us would also benefit from a vitamin D supplement. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recognized that most children don't get nearly enough of the vitamin from their diets or sunlight and recommends supplements. Exercise for good bones: Physical activity isn't just good for your heart. It's vital to maintaining strong bones. Remember that bones are living tissue. When you exert force on them with things like jumping, running or other weight-bearing exercises, your bone builds more cells and becomes denser. Since the teen years are the time of fastest bone growth, adolescents need to exercise. While physical activity won't increase bone mass for the elderly, they shouldn't drop the barbells just yet. Exercising four or five days a week can: 1. Slow bone loss  2. Build muscles to strengthen bone  3. Improve balance and coordination to reduce falls and fractures. Abstain from cigarettes and alcohol: Studies have shown that smoking and drinking are related to poor bone health. Heavy smoking has been associated with increased risk for osteoporosis, fractures and lower bone density. It's unclear how moderate or light smoking affects bone health. Smokers have a higher risk of osteoporosis, but it could be because they're usually thinner, exercise less, drink more alcohol and may have poor diets; all risk factors for osteoporosis. How alcohol affects bone health can be just as murky. We know that alcohol can inhibit the absorption of calcium and that those who abuse alcohol have more fractures and slower bone healing. Discuss bone health with your doctor: Some people just don't have good bone metabolism, which is how we rebuild healthy bones. Diet and exercise can help, but healthy habits won't completely offset bad genes. Your primary care physician or an orthopedist can evaluate your family history and other risk factors like hormonal disorders, long-term use of corticosteroid or other medications, and weight. They all affect bone health. Your bone health is in your hands, so many of us are obsessed about wrinkles and saggy skin as we age. But we should be just as obsessed with how our insides look. Our bones do a lot of the heavy lifting for our bodies. If we want them to be as healthy as they can so we can have the healthiest life we can, act now; Adopt healthy habits and never take your bones for granted.

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June 28, 2020
Dr. Rabie Hedia
Orthopaedic Surgeon
Body
Age-Related Eye Diseases

Getting older makes us more vulnerable to vision-impairing diseases. This article examines common ailments and their causes: Age-related macular degeneration:  Among the numerous eye conditions in which the central portion of the retina deteriorates, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common. Wet AMD is rarer but more aggressive, while the more common dry AMD progresses slowly. While AMD usually occurs in the elderly, it may also be seen in people who are about 50 years of age. If you are above 55, have a family history of AMD or are a heavy smoker, it is best to have tests done regularly, which will help you maintain your vision for longer. Age-related cataract: A cataract is a clouding of the lens, which affects vision. Over time, a cataract may grow larger and cloud more of the lens, making it harder to see. It can occur in either or both eyes, but does not spread from one eye to the other. Although there are other types of cataract, most are related to ageing. However, You don't have to be a senior citizen to get this type of cataract. People can have an age-related cataract in their 40s and 50s. However, it is after 60 that most cataracts occur and the risk of cataract increases over the years. Other risk factors include diseases such as diabetes, smoking and alcohol use and prolonged exposure to sunlight. Glaucoma: it is a group of disorders where the optic nerve gets damaged due to increased pressure, leading to loss of vision and irreversible blindness. It is called the silent thief of sight because it is painless and by the time symptoms show up considerable sight may be lost. Glaucoma usually affects both eyes, but one eye may be more severely affected than the other. Although there are congenital and infantile forms, glaucoma only occurs in people over 40. While people over 60 are at increased risk, the risk also increases with each passing year. Studies indicate that diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease are linked to glaucoma. Other common factors are thinner corneas, chronic eye inflammation and medications that increase eye pressure.

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June 28, 2020
Dr. Edna Joyce Santos
Ophthalmologist
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Body
Debunking the myth: HDL vs LDL

There are two types of lipoproteins which carry cholesterol to and from the cells. One is Low-Density Lipoprotein, also called LDL. The other is High-Density Lipoprotein, commonly called HDL. The levels of both LDL & HDL in your body can be measured through a simple blood test. LDL cholesterol is viewed as 'bad cholesterol' since it adds to fatty build-ups in the arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition narrows the arteries which in turn increases the risk of a Heart Attack, Stroke and Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). HDL cholesterol can be thought of as the 'good cholesterol'. In the case of HDL cholesterol; the higher the level, the better. Experts believe that HDL acts as a scavenger, carrying LDL (bad) cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver, where the LDL is broken down and passed from the body. But HDL cholesterol does not completely eliminate LDL cholesterol. Only one-third to one-fourth of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL. A healthy HDL cholesterol level may protect against heart attack and stroke. Studies show that low levels of HDL cholesterol increase the risk of heart disease.    

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June 27, 2020
Dr. Maysa Ahmed
General practitioner
Body
Dental Implants: What you need to know!

A dental implant is an artificial tooth root made of titanium which looks like a screw or post and is both strong and light. Have you been considering the dental implant procedure or do you still have some questions in your mind regarding the treatment? We will provide you with a list of answers to the most frequently asked questions about dental implants! Dental implants were invented in Sweden around 40 years ago and are considered the standard care for replacement of missing teeth. An implant is a surgical fixture that is placed onto the bone of the jaw and can fuse with the bone over time. Implants act as a replacement for the root of a missing tooth and it also acts as a replacement for a single tooth or bridge. Having an implant fused to the bone is the closest thing mimicking a natural tooth because it stands on its own without affecting the surrounding teeth, the fusion between the implant and the bone is called osseointegration and is extremely stable. Most implants are made of titanium which allows them to integrate with the bone, without being recognized as a foreign body. Over time, technology and science have progressed to greatly improve the outcomes of dental implant placement. According to The American Academy Of Implant Dentistry, the success rate of dental implants has been reported in scientific literature as 98%. The major goal of replacing a patient's set of teeth is to restore the function and aesthetics of the individual. In general, there are 3 options for teeth replacement: Removable overdenture Fixed dental bridge Single dental implant Each option depends on various factors. Some of which are: Location of missing tooth/teeth Quantity & quality of the jaw bone When the dental implant is to be placed The health of the patient Patient preference Cost There are so many advantages to choosing a dental implant for tooth replacement. One of the main reasons being that missing teeth can be replaced without affecting or altering the adjacent teeth. In addition, dental implants integrate into the bone structure, are very stable and have the look and feel of natural teeth.  

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June 27, 2020
Dr. Ehab Alsamrray
Dentist
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Body
9 Surprising Things That Can Spike Your Blood Sugar

When you first found out you had diabetes, you tested your blood sugar often to understand how food, activity, stress, and illness could affect your blood sugar levels. By now, you've got it figured out for the most part. But then, bam! Something makes your blood sugar zoom up. You try to adjust it with food or activity or insulin, and it dips low. You're on a rollercoaster no one with diabetes wants to ride. Look out for these surprising triggers that can send your blood sugar soaring: Sunburn: The pain causes stress, and stress increases blood sugar levels. Artificial sweeteners: More research needs to be done, but some studies show they can raise blood sugar. Coffee: Even without sweetener. Some people's blood sugar is extra-sensitive to caffeine. Losing sleep: Even just one night of too little sleep can make your body use insulin less efficiently. Skipping breakfast: Going without that morning meal can increase blood sugar after both lunch and dinner. Time of day: Blood sugar can be harder to control the later it gets. Dawn phenomenon: People have a surge in hormones early in the morning whether they have diabetes or not. For people with diabetes, blood sugar can spike. Dehydration: Less water in your body means a higher blood sugar concentration. Nasal spray: Some have chemicals that trigger your liver to make more blood sugar. Watch out for other triggers that can make your blood sugar fall! For example, extreme heat can cause blood vessels to dilate, which makes insulin absorb more quickly and could lead to low blood sugar. If an activity or food or situation is new, be sure to check your blood sugar levels before and after to see how you respond.  

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June 27, 2020
Dr. Reji Jacob
Internist
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